The black pepper plant is an evergreen plant. Its leaves always appear green. Black pepper is most commonly used as a spice. Apart from this, black pepper is also used in Ayurveda and Unani medicine. The use of black pepper does not cause diseases related to stomach and eyes.
The birth place of black pepper is considered to be southern India. Pepper plants can be grown both in cuttings and seeds. But it is considered best to grow its plants through cuttings. The pepper plant grows tall in the form of a vine. Whereas in the soil its roots can go up to a depth of 2 meters.
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Both red laterite soil and red soil are the most suitable soils for the cultivation of pepper. Because if this type of soil is filled with more water, the chances of rotting or spoiling of the roots of the plants are very less. Apart from red soil, it can be cultivated in many other types of soil.
Pepper should be planted in soil with proper drainage. For this, you can make an organic potting mix that contains enough nutrition that promotes the growth of the plant. Well-rotted soil or potting mix retains moisture while providing essential nutrients to the seeds and plants. While preparing the soil you can add some organic manure or vermicompost to it.
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Black pepper is cultivated in humid tropical regions with sufficient rainfall. Black pepper vine cannot tolerate extreme cold. Due to this, it cannot be cultivated in cold regions. Whereas it can be easily cultivated in places with hot and humid climates. But in such places, the need for irrigation is more.
25 to 30 degree temperature is most suitable for black pepper vine. While it can also tolerate a maximum temperature of 40 degrees. Pepper plant requires a minimum temperature of 10 for growth. But when the temperature is less than 10 degrees, the growth of its plant stops.
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The seeds of black pepper cannot be planted directly in the field, for this, the seedlings are prepared first. After which it is planted in the fields. For this many methods are used. We are going to tell you about all these methods.
Through this method, we prepare plants from seed. For this, the fertile soil is filled in polythene or pot, and put the seeds in it. Before growing the seeds in pots, put them in water mixed with vinegar for a night. While putting in water, the seeds which come on the top surface of the water are removed and thrown away. After which the remaining seeds are planted in pots. And keep pouring water into the soil. With this method, it may take a month for the plant to emerge from the seed.
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Through this method, seedlings are prepared by planting high-quality plant shoots in the soil. For this, mix an equal quantity of cow dung in the soil and mix it. After which the part to be planted in the soil is buried in the soil by applying routine hormones. After which keep in mind that where you are keeping the plant, the sunlight should not fall directly on the plant. The best time to plant it is considered to be March and April.
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Through this method, many plants can grow from one vine. This method of planting pepper is the cheapest method. In this method, the main plant is planted by putting 500 grams of fertile soil in big polythene. After which keep it in some shady place. And when the vine starts forming from the plant, then knots start forming at some distance in it. Without cutting these knots again, we put soil in small polythene and bury it. But for this, leaving a lump between the two knots, they should be buried in the soil. And a proper amount of water should be kept in them too. After a few days, roots also start forming in these knots and new branches start forming. Through this process, soon many plants are ready. Which can be easily separated from the original stem and planted in the fields. The best time to plant it in the fields is in the month of September.
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In this method, soil is not required to grow the plant. Coconut jute and earthworm manure (vermicompost) are required in this method. For these two are mixed in a ratio of 75:25. After which, by adding 10 grams of Trichoderma-based talcum powder to it, prepare the mixture. After which, by filling this mixture in the plug tray, prepare the plant for planting. With this mixture, 15 cm thick beds are prepared in trays. in which the plant is planted. After planting the plant, the tray is kept in a playhouse at the same temperature. And keep giving water in it from time to time. Which nodes start forming in the plant after a few days.
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Pepper seedlings cannot tolerate much sunlight in the initial time, so they should be planted in the fields after the month of September to protect them from the initial strong sun. While planting plants, keep in mind that a distance of more than 3 meters should be kept between each plant. The pepper plant grows in the form of a vine. For this reason, before planting it, plant the supporting plants at a distance of three to three meters. And when the subsidiary plant starts growing, then plant the black pepper plant near the subsidiary plant. To plant the plants along with the supporting plants in the field, a pit of 50 cm should be dug and planted below. During this, another node of the plant should be buried inside the soil. With this, the establishment of the plant becomes even better.
While planting the pepper plant in the field, fertilizer should be applied in proper quantity in the pits. Because only proper quantity is more helpful in growing plants. Initially, before planting, apply cow dung to each plant.
When the plant is fully developed, then in the first year NPK. Give one-third of the ratio of 1:1:3 (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) to the plants.
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Pepper plant needs more water. For this reason, its first irrigation should be done along with the planting of the plant. After which it should be watered continuously. So that moisture remains in the plant. If less water is given to the plant, then the leaves of the plant turn yellow and start falling. But when flowers are coming on the plant, then give water to the plant in very less quantity. Because by giving too much water, the flowers of the plant fall. Due to this the yield is reduced.
Whenever we go to get seeds for our garden, we have two options, mainly indigenous/heirloom…