Introduction / परिचय

Cabbage, scientifically known as Brassica oleracea var. capitata, is a cool-season vegetable cultivated for thousands of years, celebrated for its versatile culinary applications and nutritional benefits. Belonging to the Brassicaceae family, cabbage is characterized by its tight, leafy head, which comes in various colours, including green, red, and savoy. Rich in essential nutrients, vitamins, and fibre, cabbage is a staple in many cuisines worldwide, featuring prominently in coleslaw, stir-fries, sauerkraut, and countless other dishes. Its adaptability to different climates and its ability to thrive in home gardens make cabbage a favourite among gardeners and food enthusiasts.

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English Name:Cabbage
Hindi Name:पत्ता गोभी (Patta Gobhi)
Scientific Name:Brassica oleracea var. capitata
Light :Full Sun
Height:16–24 inch
Flower Color :-
Leaves Color :Green
Eason Features :

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When to Plant Cabbage

The best time to plant cabbage depends on your climate and growing variety. Generally, there are two main planting seasons for cabbage:

Spring Cabbage Planting

  • In regions with mild winters, you can plant cabbage in the spring. This allows it to grow and mature before the heat of summer arrives. Spring cabbage is typically harvested in early summer.
  • Start seeds indoors 6-8 weeks before your area's last expected frost date. Transplant the seedlings outdoors when they are around 4-6 weeks old and the soil has warmed up and is workable.
  • In cooler climates, you can directly sow cabbage seeds in early spring when the soil is workable.

Fall Cabbage Planting

  • Fall planting is often preferred for regions with hot summers or a longer growing season. Fall cabbage is planted in mid to late summer and harvested in the late fall or early winter.
  • Begin seeds indoors or directly sow in mid-summer, around 10-12 weeks before the first expected fall frost in your area. This allows the cabbage to mature during the cooler fall months.

It's crucial to consider your local climate and the specific cabbage variety you're growing when determining the best planting time. Cabbage prefers cool temperatures and consistent moisture. Ensure that you provide well-drained soil, regular watering, and adequate spacing for the plants to thrive, regardless of the season you choose for planting.

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Varieties / किस्मे

Cabbage is a versatile and widely cultivated vegetable with several distinct varieties, each offering unique flavours and culinary uses. Here are some common cabbage varieties:

Green Cabbage

The most common and readily available type, green cabbage has smooth, pale green leaves. It's a versatile option for coleslaws, stir-fries, and sauerkraut.

Red Cabbage

Red cabbage, with its vibrant purple-red leaves, adds colour and a slightly peppery flavour to salads, pickled dishes, and braised recipes.

Savoy Cabbage

Known for its crinkled and textured leaves, it is tender and ideal for stuffing, wraps, or adding to soups and stews.

Napa Cabbage

Also called Chinese cabbage, Napa cabbage features oblong, tightly packed heads with crisp, sweet leaves. It's a key ingredient in Asian dishes like kimchi and stir-fries.

Bok Choy

This Asian green has thick, white stalks and dark green leaves. It's popular in stir-fries and can be enjoyed cooked or raw.


Although not a traditional cabbage, kale is a member of the cabbage family. It has curly or lacinato leaves and is valued for its high nutritional content. Kale is often used in salads, smoothies, and as a side dish.

Brussels Sprouts 

These are small cabbage-like vegetables that grow on a stalk. They have a nutty flavour and are often roasted, sautéed, or steamed.

Conehead or Cone Cabbage

This cabbage variety forms a pointed head and is sometimes called "January King." It's a winter cabbage with a sweet and slightly nutty flavour.

Hispi Cabbage

Known for its pointed, cone-shaped head, Hispi cabbage has a tender texture and mild flavour. It's excellent for salads and coleslaw.

Cannonball Cabbage

As the name suggests, it forms a round, dense head, making it suitable for various cooking methods, including boiling and stir-frying.

These are just a few of the many cabbage varieties available. The choice of cabbage type can significantly influence the taste and texture of your dishes, so it's worth experimenting with different varieties to discover your favourites.

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Classification of Plants/ पौधों का वर्गीकरण

Cabbage plants, part of the Brassica oleracea species, encompass several well-known cultivars, each with distinct characteristics. The primary classifications of cabbage plants are:

Green Cabbage

The most common variety, featuring dense, pale-green leaves in a round or oval shape. It's versatile and used in various culinary applications.

Savoy Cabbage

Recognizable by its crinkled and dark green leaves, Savoy cabbage offers a milder, sweeter flavor and is often used in salads and traditional dishes.

Red Cabbage

With vibrant purple-red leaves, red cabbage adds color and flavor to coleslaws and pickled dishes.

Napa Cabbage

Also known as Chinese cabbage, it has elongated, oblong heads with tender, mild-flavored leaves, popular in Asian cuisine.

Bok Choy

A type of Chinese cabbage with crunchy stalks and dark green leaves, widely used in stir-fries and salads.

These different classifications offer a range of flavors, textures, and culinary possibilities, making cabbage a versatile and essential vegetable in various cuisines worldwide.

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History / इतिहास

Cabbage plants, known scientifically as Brassica oleracea, have a rich history dating back to ancient times. Originating in Europe and the Mediterranean, they have been cultivated for over 2,000 years. Cabbages were a staple in the diets of ancient civilizations, including the Greeks and Romans. Over centuries, various cabbage varieties emerged, such as green, red, and Savoy cabbage. European immigrants introduced cabbage to the Americas during the 16th century. Cabbage became a critical crop, particularly during times of scarcity and war. Today, cabbages are a global dietary staple, valued for their versatility in various culinary dishes.

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Uses and Benefits / उपयोग एवं फायदे

Cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) offer numerous uses and health benefits. Cabbage is a versatile vegetable commonly used in various culinary dishes, from coleslaw to stir-fries. It's a good source of vitamins and minerals, including vitamins C, K, and folate, and provides dietary fibre. Cabbage is also rich in antioxidants and has potential cancer-fighting properties. Beyond its nutritional value, cabbage leaves are employed in traditional medicine as compresses for soothing inflammation and swelling. Moreover, cabbage can be a valuable addition to the home garden, as it's relatively easy to grow and has various cultivars, including green, red, and savoy types.

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How to Grow Plant / कैसे उगाएं

Growing cabbage plants is a rewarding endeavour. Start by choosing a suitable location with well-drained, fertile soil and plenty of sunlight. Cabbage thrives in cooler weather, so plant in early spring or late summer. Space seedlings about 12-24 inches apart in rows. Keep the soil consistently moist and provide ample organic matter for nutrients. Protect your cabbage from common pests like cabbage worms with row covers or organic pesticides. Regularly weed the area to reduce competition for nutrients. Harvest when the heads are firm and fully developed. Cabbage is a versatile vegetable that adds crunch and nutrition to various culinary dishes.

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How to Take Care/ देखभाल कैसे करे

Cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) are relatively easy to care for:

Soil and Location 

Plant cabbage in well-drained, nutrient-rich soil with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. Ensure they receive full sun for at least 6 hours daily.


Space cabbage plants 12-24 inches apart, depending on the variety. Plant them at the same depth they were in the nursery containers.


Keep the soil consistently moist. Cabbage requires about 1-1.5 inches of water per week, so water deeply when necessary.


Apply a balanced, slow-release fertilizer at planting and side-dress with additional fertilizer as needed.

Pest and Disease Control 

Regularly inspect for pests like aphids or cabbage worms and take preventive measures. Use row covers if necessary.


Harvest cabbage when heads are firm and reach the desired size. Cut the heads with a sharp knife, leaving the roots in place for potential regrowth.

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Interesting Facts / रोचक तथ्य

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea) is a versatile and nutritious vegetable with some intriguing facts:

Ancient Origins

Cabbage has been cultivated for over 4,000 years, with its origins traced to Asia Minor.

Variety Abundance

There are several cabbage varieties, including green, red, Napa, and Savoy cabbage, each with distinct flavours and uses.

High Vitamin C 

Cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C, providing more of this nutrient per unit weight than oranges.

Sauerkraut Transformation

Cabbage is a critical ingredient in sauerkraut, a fermented food used by Chinese labourers to combat scurvy during the construction of the Great Wall.

Cabbage Patch Dolls

The famous "Cabbage Patch Kids" dolls were named after this vegetable due to their unique, cabbage-like birthplace.

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